Authorship, Date, and Provenance of 1 Peter

Introduction In the case of 1 Peter the issues of authorship, date, and provenance are inter-related. A decision on one item can influence one’s decision on another item. The traditional view is that the apostle Peter wrote the epistle in Rome prior to his martyrdom, which occured around AD 65 (Tertullian, Scorp. 15; Origen in…

Commentary on 1 Peter 5:12-14

Notes (NET Translation) 5:12 Through Silvanus, whom I know to be a faithful brother, I have written to you briefly, in order to encourage you and testify that this is the true grace of God. Stand fast in it. Silvanus/Silas was often Paul’s partner in ministry (Acts 15:22-34; 16:19-29; 17:4-15; 18:5; 2 Cor 1:19; 1…

Commentary on 1 Peter 5:1-11

Notes (NET Translation) 5:1 So as your fellow elder and a witness of Christ’s sufferings and as one who shares in the glory that will be revealed, I urge the elders among you: 5:2 Give a shepherd’s care to God’s flock among you, exercising oversight not merely as a duty but willingly under God’s direction,…

Commentary on 1 Peter 4:12-19

Notes (NET Translation) 4:12 Dear friends, do not be astonished that a trial by fire is occurring among you, as though something strange were happening to you. The phrase “trial by fire” is a metaphor referring to the purification or refining of God’s people (Prov 27:21; Ps 66:10; Zech 13:9; Mal 3:1-4; Rom 5:3-5; Jas…

Commentary on 1 Peter 4:7-11

Notes (NET Translation) 4:7 For the culmination of all things is near. So be self-controlled and sober-minded for the sake of prayer. Verses 5-6 ended with a reference to the final judgment. Verse 7 picks up from there by noting that the end (to telos) of all things is near. How, then, is “the end”…

Commentary on 1 Peter 4:1-6

Notes (NET Translation) 4:1 So, since Christ suffered in the flesh, you also arm yourselves with the same attitude, because the one who has suffered in the flesh has finished with sin, 4:2 in that he spends the rest of his time on earth concerned about the will of God and not human desires. The…

Commentary on 1 Peter 3:18-22

Notes (NET Translation) 3:18 Because Christ also suffered once for sins, the just for the unjust, to bring you to God, by being put to death in the flesh but by being made alive in the spirit. The Greek term hapax (“once [for all]”) indicates that Christ’s death and resurrection were unique and definitive (Achtemeier…