Introduction: Numbers

Title The book of Numbers is the fourth book of the Bible. The English title comes from the Latin Vulgate (Numeri) and the Greek Septuagint (Arithmoi). This title was presumably chosen because of the censuses and other numerical data in the book (chs. 1-4, 26). The oldest Hebrew title is “the Fifth (of the Torah…

Introduction: Letter to the Romans

Overview Author: Paul Date: AD 55-57 Provenance: Corinth Recipients: Christians in Rome Significance Romans is the longest extant Pauline epistle and the most complete exposition of the Pauline gospel. The expository argument . . . of Romans has played an immeasurable role in the centuries since, most especially in two ways: first, in helping to…

Revelation

Authorship The author identifies himself as John (1:1, 4, 9; 22:8). He does not identify himself as an apostle but rather calls himself a servant (1:1; 19:10) and a prophet (1:3; 22:7, 9, 18-19). He received his revelation on the island of Patmos (1:9) and wrote to communities in the Roman province of Asia (1:4).…

Review of Chapter 12 of Redating Matthew, Mark and Luke

Introduction In this final chapter Wenham argues for the dates of the Synoptic Gospels. He believes Luke was written before 55, that Mark was written around 45, and that Matthew was written in about 40. Before or After AD 70? Jerusalem and its temple were destroyed by the Romans in 70. All three Synoptic Gospels…

Authorship and Date of 2 Peter and Jude

Relationship Between 2 Peter and Jude The authorship and date of 2 Peter and Jude are treated in one post because there is a literary relationship between the two letters. In a number of verses the epistles have remarkable parallels, especially in the Greek (Davids 136-141; Schreiner 415-417): Jude 4: “For certain men have secretly…

Authorship, Date, and Provenance of 1 Peter

Introduction In the case of 1 Peter the issues of authorship, date, and provenance are inter-related. A decision on one item can influence one’s decision on another item. The traditional view is that the apostle Peter wrote the epistle in Rome prior to his martyrdom, which occured around AD 65 (Tertullian, Scorp. 15; Origen in…

Esther

Overview The Greek additions to Esther are not original. The canonicity of Esther was debated by both Jews and Christians. It is now accepted as canonical by both Jews and Christians. Author: Unknown Date: ca. 464-400 BC Textual Witnesses Hebrew Manuscripts More Hebrew manuscripts exist for the book of Esther than for any other biblical…