Commentary on Numbers 14

Notes (NET Translation) 1 Then all the community raised a loud cry, and the people wept that night. “That night” is the night after the spy report was given (ch. 13). 2 And all the Israelites murmured against Moses and Aaron, and the whole congregation said to them, “If only we had died in the…

Commentary on Numbers 13:17-33

Notes (NET Translation) 17 When Moses sent them to investigate the land of Canaan, he told them, “Go up through the Negev, and then go up into the hill country 18 and see what the land is like, and whether the people who live in it are strong or weak, few or many, 19 and…

Commentary on Numbers 13:1-16

Notes (NET Translation) 1 The LORD spoke to Moses: If one takes into account the parallel passage in Deut 1:19–46, the idea of sending scouts originated with the people as they were situated on the southern edge of the Amorite hill country. The idea seemed good to Moses, and the Lord then laid out the instructions…

Commentary on Numbers 12

Notes (NET Translation) 1 Then Miriam and Aaron spoke against Moses because of the Cushite woman he had married (for he had married an Ethiopian woman). Miriam and Aaron are Moses’s sister and brother, respectively. Since this section begins with the feminine singular form of the verb va-tedabber it means Miriam is the leader in…

Commentary on Numbers 11:4-35

Notes (NET Translation) 4 Now the mixed multitude who were among them craved more desirable foods, and so the Israelites wept again and said, “If only we had meat to eat! 5 We remember the fish we used to eat freely in Egypt, the cucumbers, the melons, the leeks, the onions, and the garlic. 6…

Commentary on Numbers 11:1-3

Notes (NET Translation) This short section of three verses contains all of the essential elements of all the subsequent narratives describing Israel’s complaints: complaint (11:4–5; 12:1–2; 14:1–4; 17:6–7; 20:3–5; 21:5), divine punishment (11:33; 12:9–10; 14:20–37; 16:32; 17:11; 21:7), and immortalizing the incident by giving a name to the site (11:34; 20:13; 21:3; Exod. 15:23; 17:7).1…

Roman Libraries and Gospel Anonymity

George W. Houston’s Inside Roman Libraries: Book Collections and Their Management in Antiquity (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, 2014) provides some information that may be relevant to the authorship of the Gospels. Scholars often claim the Gospels were originally anonymous and the names assigned to them (Matthew, Mark, Luke, John) were given…