- Author: Paul
- Date: AD 55-57
- Provenance: Corinth
- Recipients: Christians in Rome
Romans is the longest extant Pauline epistle and the most complete exposition of the Pauline gospel.
The expository argument . . . of Romans has played an immeasurable role in the centuries since, most especially in two ways: first, in helping to shape the Christians community’s understanding of its relationship to the Hebrew Scriptures and to Judaism, both its debt and its distinctiveness; and second, in restoring and clarifying a sense of direction and identity in Christian reflection in times of great contention and change, such as the Pelagian controversy in the fifth century, the emergence of Protestantism in the sixteenth, and the breakdown of liberal optimism in the twentieth. These two ways in which Romans has functioned are intimately connected and are, one might say, but two sides of its significance.1
Augustine of Hippo converted to Christianity after reading Romans 13:13 (Confessions 8.12) and went on to become one of the most influential theologians in Christianity. His idea of original sin comes from Romans 5. Martin Luther’s struggles to understand this epistle resulted in the Protestant Reformation, which impacted both the Christian church and Western civilization. “He formulated his understanding of sin, law and gospel, faith, salvation, and the righteousness of God by conducting an intensive exegesis of this letter.”2 John Calvin’s doctrine of double predestination is derived from Romans 9-11. John Wesley’s teaching on sanctification comes from Romans 6 and 8. The importance Karl Barth gave to the righteousness of God comes from Romans 1-2.
Unity, Text, and Integrity
The major text critical issues in Romans concern chapters 15-16. The benediction is traditionally placed at 16:24 and the doxology is traditionally placed at 16:25-27. As the following list shows, the arrangement of the last two chapters, the benediction, and the doxology differ in our manuscripts:3
- (a) 1:1-16:23, 16:25-27: P61vid, א, B, C, D, 81, 1739, itd, 61, vg, syrp, copsa, bo, eth.
- (b) 1:1-14:23, 16:25-27, 15:1-16:23, 16:25–27: A, P, 5, 33, 104, arm.
- (c) 1:1-14:23, 16:25-27, 15:1-16:24: L, Ψ, 0209vid, 181, 326, 330, 614, 1175, Byz, syrh, mssacc. to Origenlat.
- (d) 1:1-16:24: Fgr, G (perhaps the archetype to D), 629, mssacc. to Jerome.
- (e) 1:1-15:33, 16:25-27, 16:1-23: P46.
- (f) 1:1-14:23, 16:24, 16:25-27: vg1648, 1792, 2089, Old Latinacc. to capitula.
The manuscript evidence raises a number of questions: Were chapters 15 and 16 part of the original letter? Was the benediction part of the original letter? Was the doxology part of the original letter and, if so, where was it located?
Starting with (f), we have a 14-chapter version of Romans followed by the benediction and doxology. According to Origen (comm. in Rom. 7, 453), Marcion used a 14-chapter version of Romans in the second century. The placement of the doxology after 14:23 in some manuscripts (c) is indirect testimony to a 14-chapter version of Romans. Nonetheless, Romans was not originally a 14-chapter letter. The sequence in (f) “appears to be peculiar to the transmission of the epistle in Latin.”4 The “intimate connection between chaps. 14 and 15 makes it impossible to think that Paul’s original letter was without chap. 15.”5
How, then, did the 14-chapter form of the letter originate? Lightfoot thought that Paul himself may have abbreviated his letter to the Romans, omitting the references to Rome in 1:7 and 1:15 at the same time, in order to universalize the epistle. But it is unlikely that, had this been Paul’s purpose, he would have cut off his epistle in the middle of his argument. The same objection applies to Gamble’s theory that the text of Romans was shortened after Paul’s time in order to make the letter more universally applicable. The earliest explanation for the shortened form is given by Origen, who claims that Marcion cut off (dissecuit) the last two chapters. Since this explanation offers the best rationale for breaking off the letter at 15:1 (for there is much from 15:1 onward that would have offended Marcion’s anti-Jewish sentiments), I tentatively adopt it as the most likely explanation for the 14-chapter form of the letter.6
Moving on to (e), we have chapter 15 followed by the doxology and chapter 16. The benediction is not present. The fact that the doxology follows chapter 15 suggests to some scholars that a 15-chapter version of Romans was once in circulation. A few scholars even argue that the 15-chapter version is original. They note that Paul greets twenty-six persons by name in 16:3-15 even though he had never visited Rome (1:10; 15:22). They find it unlikely Paul would know so many people in a place he had never visited. They also point out that Paul normally gives a general and collective greeting instead of greeting addressees by name.
The arguments for a 15-chapter original are weak relative to the arguments for a 16-chapter original. First, not a single manuscript omits chapter 16. Second, chapter 15 lacks Paul’s normal epistolary conclusion. Paul usually follows the phrase “the God of peace be with all of you” (15:33) with requests to pass on greetings — like those in chapter 16. Third, the style and structure of the epistolary conclusion in chapter 16 is typical of Paul’s conclusions in other letters. Fourth, the “last-minute warning about false teachers in vv. 17-20 has some parallel with Paul’s procedure in other letters; and the special circumstances of Romans explain why it occurs only here.”7 Fifth, “the expulsion of the Jews and Jewish Christians from Rome would have given Paul opportunity to meet a number of these people (like Priscilla and Aquila) during the time of their exile in the east.”8 “Travel in the Greco-Roman world was remarkably common.”9 “Because Paul had not visited Rome, it was to his advantage to mention the names of those Roman believers who he knew from churches elsewhere. Moreover, Paul describes these persons in laudatory terms, which enhances their position in the community and reflects positively on Paul’s status in the church. In this way, Paul presents himself as one who was not unknown to the church at Rome.”10
Concerning the benediction, in some manuscripts it is omitted (a, b, e), in some manuscripts it is at the end of chapter 16 (c, d), and in some manuscripts it is at the end of chapter 14 (f). Since the earliest and best witnesses omit the benediction it is quite unlikely to be original.11
Concerning the doxology, in some manuscripts it is at the end of the letter (a), in some manuscripts it is both at the end of chapter 14 and at the end of the letter (b), in some manuscripts it is at the end of chapter 14 (c, f), in some manuscripts it is omitted (d), and in one manuscript it is after chapter 15 (e). Sequence (b) can be explained by a scribe who found the doxology in more than one place in his sources and did not wish to leave anything out and therefore conflated the readings in his copy.12 Sequence (c) is not original because the doxology in this location destroys the continuity between chapters 14 and 15. Sequence (e) is unlikely to be original since it is found in only one manuscript. Since chapters 15 and 16 are part of the original, sequence (f), which lacks chapter 15 and 16, cannot be original. This leaves us with two possibilities: the doxology was not originally part of the letter (d) or the doxology was originally at the end of the letter (a). It is uncertain which alternative is correct.
Romans exhibits an obvious epistolary form. First comes the salutation (1:1-7) that identifies both the author (1:1-6) and the recipients of the letter (1:7a) and includes the apostle’s characteristic greeting (“Grace . . . and peace . . .” [1:7b]). Then, after the thanksgiving (1:8-15) comes the body of the letter (1:16-11:36), which is followed by the paraenetic or hortatory section (12:1-15:13). Finally, Paul relates his travel plans (15:14-33), then he closes with greetings (16:1-16) and a benediction (16:20).13
The body of the letter is not particularly focused on local issues. It is a treatise which presents a theological argument (or series of arguments).
It addresses key theological issues against the backdrop of middle first-century Christianity rather than within the context of specific local problems. Nevertheless, Romans is no timeless treatise. We must not forget that Romans as a whole is a letter, written on a specific occasion, to a specific community. As we have seen, these specifics have not played a large role in Paul’s presentation, but they have undoubtedly determined the agenda of theological and practical issues with which Paul deals. In this regard, we must note that Romans is far from being a comprehensive summary of Paul’s theology. Many issues near and dear to him are absent, or only allusively mentioned: the church as the “body of Christ,” the parousia, and Christology (in the “formal” sense). Moreover, the issues that Paul does treat are oriented to a specific, though broad, theological topic: the relationship between Jew and Gentile, law and gospel.14
Authorship, Date, and Provenance
The author identifies himself as the apostle Paul (1:1).
Although a few persons in past centuries have questioned the Pauline authorship of the Epistle to the Romans, no one in recent years has successfully challenged the epistle’s authenticity. Not only do all agree that the apostle Paul was the actual author of this magnificent letter that bears his name, but this epistle is used as the standard against which the authenticity of other epistles attributed to Paul is measured.15
Paul used a scribe, Tertius, to write the letter (16:22).
How much freedom was he given in the composition of the letter? Three different possibilities have been suggested: (1) Paul communicated the general themes of the letter to Tertius, who wrote the letter according to Paul’s instructions but was responsible for its composition. In this scenario the specific features of the letter should be attributed to Tertius, while the general themes derive from Paul. (2) Tertius took down Paul’s dictation in shorthand and later wrote it out in longhand. (3) Paul dictated the letter word for word, and Tertius wrote it out in longhand. If one of the last two options is judged most probable, it is impossible to know for certain which course was taken. A decision between them is not crucial because in the final analysis they amount to the same thing: the letter represents word for word what Paul dictated. The first option is the least likely of the three. There is evidence that secretaries wrote both in longhand and shorthand in Paul’s time. It is intrinsically unlikely that Paul would surrender the specific contents of Romans to Tertius. The letter was of great import to Paul, and its careful structure suggests that he fussed over the details. Indeed, the ever present γάρ (gar, for) suggests a dictated text. The style of Romans fits with Paul’s other letters that are accepted as authentic, and there is no evidence that Tertius composed those. In conclusion, Romans should be accepted as the product of Paul’s dictation to Tertius, and the question whether it was first composed in shorthand or longhand should be left open.16
At the time of writing, Paul had finished his missionary activities in the east (15:19-23), received contributions for the poor from Macedonia and Achaia (15:26-27), was about to visit Jerusalem with aid for the poor (15:25), and intended to go to Spain after stopping in Rome (15:24, 28).
Since the contributions for Jerusalem had been collected, we know Romans was written after Galatians, 1 Corinthians, and 2 Corinthians. In Gal 2:10 Paul says he agreed to remember the poor in Jerusalem. In 1 Cor 16:1-4 he tells the Corinthians how to collect money and in 2 Cor 8-9 he urges them to complete what they have begun.
In Acts 19:21-22 we read that Paul resolved to go to Jerusalem, passing through Macedonia and Achaia, and then on to Rome. He stayed in Greece for three months (Acts 20:2-3) before continuing on towards Jerusalem. It was during this three month stay that Paul most likely wrote Romans.
We can go further and infer that he wrote from Corinth. In 2 Cor 1:16 Paul tells the Corinthians he intends to depart from Corinth for Judea. In Rom 15:25-26 he says he is going to Jerusalem with a contribution from the Roman province of Achaia, whose capital is Corinth. In Rom 16:1-2 he commends Phoebe from Cenchrea, the eastern seaport of Corinth. The Gaius with whom Paul is staying (Rom 16:23) is likely the same Gaius whom Paul baptized at Corinth (1 Cor 1:14). Erastus, the city treasurer mentioned in Rom 16:23 and who was in Corinth at least once (2 Tim 4:20), may have been the city commissioner (aedile) of Corinth mentioned in an inscription “discovered in 1929 east of the stage building of the theatre in Corinth.”17 “Later manuscripts of Romans include a subscription stating it was written from Corinth and delivered by Phoebe.”18
During his visit to Jerusalem Paul was taken into custody (Acts 21:27-23:30) and then transferred to Caesarea, where he remained for at least two years (Acts 23:31-26:32). After appealing to Caesar (Acts 25:11) he was taken to Rome (Acts 27:1-28:16), where he remained in custody for another two years (Acts 28:17-31). The end of Acts takes us to ca. AD 62 so Romans must have been written before ca. AD 58.
A date of writing between AD 55 and 57 makes the best sense of the above data. Paul’s exhortation to the church to pay taxes (13:6-7) fits the controversy concerning taxes in Rome in the mid-50s (Tacitus, Annals 13.50-51). Paul’s comments on being subject to governing authorities (13:1-7) make sense on this date because “Paul had no reason to suspect that Christians, particularly the Gentile Christians he was mainly writing to, were likely to be abused by Nero or other officials. After all, it was Nero who allowed Jews and Jewish Christians to come back to Rome when he took the throne.”19
Founding of the Church in Rome
The letter was written to Christians in Rome (1:7, 15). It is unclear how this church was founded. Out of a population of approximately one million, an estimated 40,000-50,000 Jews lived in first-century Rome and some of these may have been the first converts to Christianity. Roman Jews heard Peter’s Pentecost sermon in Jerusalem (Acts 2:5, 10) and may have brought the gospel back to Rome. Around AD 375, the church father Ambrosiaster, living in Rome, says the Romans “have embraced the faith of Christ, albeit according to the Jewish rite, without seeing any sign of mighty works or any of the apostles.”20
Suetonius says Claudius expelled the Jews from Rome (Claudius 25.4) because of the instigation of Chrestus (an alternate Latin spelling for Christus). This apparently refers to disturbances in the Roman Jewish community over the messiahship of Jesus.21 Acts 18:2 attests to this expulsion and says it caused Priscilla and Aquila to move to Corinth. The expulsion probably occurred ca. AD 49. By the time Paul wrote this letter, after Claudius’s death in AD 54, the couple had returned to Rome (16:3).
Around AD 180 Irenaeus wrote that Peter and Paul preached in Rome and laid the foundations of the church (Haer. 3.1.1; 3.3.2). If Irenaeus is claiming that Paul founded the church then he is incorrect because Paul himself says he had not visited Rome (Rom 1:10, 13; 15:22). He also says he would not build on the foundation of another (15:20) and so it seems unlikely Peter founded the church either. But Irenaeus is probably saying that, because Peter and Paul were apostles, they were foundational to the church (cf. Eph 2:20). In fact, both Peter and Paul did minister to the Romans (Acts 28:13-16, 30-31).
By AD 64 there were enough Christians in Rome for Nero to focus his persecution upon them.
Ethnic Composition: Jew and Gentile
Paul addresses both Jews (2:17; 3:9; 4:1; 7:1, 4) and Gentiles (1:5-6, 13; 11:13, 23-31; 15:14-21). He greets Priscilla and Aquila (16:3), who are Jewish (Acts 18:2). Andronicus, Junia, and Herodian are called Paul’s kinsmen (16:7-11). Fifty percent of the names mentioned in chapter 16 are Jewish.22 The letter addresses issues of interest to Jews: their sin and presumption of divine favor (2:1-3:8), the failure of the law (3:19-20, 27-31; 4:12-15; 5:13-14, 20; 6:14; 7; 8:2-4; 9:30-10:8), the significance of Abraham (ch. 4), and their place in God’s plan (chs. 9-11).
It may be that the Roman church started with a Jewish majority. When the Jews were expelled under Claudius the remaining Gentile church continued to grow. After Claudius’s death in AD 54 the ban was lifted and Jewish Christians could return to Rome, where they were probably now outnumbered by Gentile Christians. The return of the Jewish Christians may have caused some friction between the “strong” and the “weak” that is reflected in 14:1-15:13.
The defense of Jews and Jewish Christians in chs. 9-11 to Gentile Christians needs to be given the weight it deserves. Paul wishes to make clear that Jews and Gentiles alike have the same responsibilities before God (cf. 1.16; 2.9ff., 25ff.; 3.29; 10.12) and that God is impartial when it comes to matters of both justice and mercy. God is the God of both Jews and Gentiles. Thus, just to reiterate, Paul is focusing on Gentile Christians in Rome, though his audience probably contains some Jewish Christians, as well as former God-fearers (in all likelihood).23
And the knowledge of the LXX required to make sense of some of Paul’s arguments, for example in chs. 1-4 and 9-11, suggests that there were in the audience some Jewish Christians and some Gentile Christians who had been among the God-fearers, that is, Gentiles who had attended synagogue services but had not fully converted to Judaism.24
Social Level and Structure
Paul may have known of at least five house churches in Rome: (1) one that met in the house of Priscilla and Aquila (16:5); (2) one that met in the house of Aristobulus (16:10); (3) one that met in the house of Narcissus (16:11); (4) one that included Asyncritus, Phlegon, Hermes, Patrobas, and Hermas (16:14); and (5) one that included Philologus, Julia, Nereus, and Olympas (16:15).
This means that there had to have been some early Christians in Rome of significant enough social status to have more than just a room in an insula (in modern terms, an apartment house). A patron was a wealthy person who acted as a benefactor and protector of another person. There have to have been some patron-like Christians who hosted church meetings in their homes.25
The more sophisticated and more erudite style of Romans, in comparison to the other Pauline epistles, suggests that the community which Paul addresses is unlike his own congregations. Therefore, Paul wrote this epistle in a manner that he thought would enlighten and also persuade believers in Rome.26
Paul wrote to the Romans because he was called by God to be a minister to the Gentiles and he wanted to ensure that the Gentiles would be an offering acceptable to God (15:15-16). Much of the letter is a statement and defense of his gospel intended to do just that (1:11-12, 15). Consistent with this aim are his attempts to deal with divisions in the community (11:13-32; 14:1-15:13; 16:17-18) and answer objections to his gospel (3:1, 9; 4:1; 6:1, 15; 7:7, 13; 9:6, 14, 30; 11:1, 11).
Paul also wrote to tell the Romans of his travel plans. He was about to travel to Jerusalem with the collection (15:25-27) and asked for prayer support (15:30-31). He then intended to go to Rome on his way to Spain (15:23-24).
A church-planting enterprise so far from Paul’s home base in Antioch would create all kinds of logistical problems. It would be natural for Paul to try to enlist the help of the vital and centrally located Roman community for this mission. In fact, Paul alludes to his hopes for such support in 15:24, using the verb propempō, which connotes “help on the way with material support.” We may, then, view Romans as Paul’s “letter of introduction” to a church that he hopes to add to his list of “sponsors.” This would explain the general theological focus of the letter, for Paul would want to assure the Romans that they would be sponsoring a missionary whose orthodoxy was without question.27
Literary Structure and Content
- The Letter Opening (1:1-15)
- Salutation (1:1-7)
- Thanksgiving and Occasion (1:8-15)
- Exposition and Defense of the Gospel (1:16-11:36)
- The Theme of the Letter: The Gospel of God’s Righteousness (1:16-17)
- God’s Wrath Against Sinners (1:18-3:20)
- The Unrighteousness of the Gentiles (1:18-32)
- Their Rejection of God (1:18-23)
- The Consequences of Their Rejection of God (1:24-32)
- The Unrighteousness of the Jews (2:1-3:8)
- Critique of Jewish Presumption (2:1-5)
- The Impartiality of Judgment (2:6-11)
- Judgment and the Law (2:12-16)
- The Limitations of the Covenant (2:17-29)
- God’s Faithfulness and the Judgment of Jews (3:1-8)
- The Unrighteousness of All People (3:9-20)
- The Unrighteousness of the Gentiles (1:18-32)
- God’s Saving Righteousness (3:21-4:25)
- God’s Righteousness in the Death of Jesus (3:21-26)
- Righteousness is by Faith for Jews and Gentiles (3:27-31)
- Abraham Justified by Faith (4:1-25)
- God Justifies Abraham Apart from Works (4:1-8)
- Abraham, the Father of All Peoples (4:9-16)
- The Nature of Abraham’s Faith (4:17-22)
- The Faith of Abraham and the Faith of the Christian (4:23-25)
- Justification Brings Freedom and Hope (5:1-8:39)
- Justified by Faith (5:1-11)
- The Benefits of Justification (5:1-2)
- Rejoicing Even in Suffering (5:3-5)
- God’s Love Demonstrated in Christ’s Death for Us (5:6-11)
- Christ’s Triumph over Adam’s Sin (5:12-21)
- The Triumph of Grace over the Power of Sin (6:1-23)
- Freedom from Sin’s Tyranny (6:1-14)
- Freedom from Sin’s Slavery (6:15-23)
- The Triumph of Grace over the Power of the Law (7:1-8:17)
- Freedom from the Law’s Tyranny (7:1-6)
- The Goodness and Impotence of the Law (7:7-25)
- Fulfillment of the Law by the Spirit (8:1-17)
- Present Suffering and Future Glory (8:18-39)
- Hope of a New Creation (8:18-25)
- Hope in Prayer (8:26-27)
- Hope of Glorification (8:28-30)
- Certainty of Hope in Suffering (8:31-39)
- Justified by Faith (5:1-11)
- Israel and the Purposes of God (9:1-11:36)
- Israel’s Election (9:1-29)
- Israel’s Separation from Christ (9:1-5)
- God’s Promise to Israel (9:6-13)
- God’s Sovereign Righteousness (9:14-29)
- Israel’s Rejection of God’s Saving Righteousness (9:30-11:10)
- Israel’s Failure to Obtain Righteousness (9:30-10:4)
- The Testimony of the Law to Faith (10:5-13)
- Israel’s Oppurtunity to Believe (10:14-21)
- The Remnant from Israel (11:1-10)
- God’s Righteousness in His Plan for Jews and Gentiles (11:11-32)
- Israel’s Hardening Means Salvation for the Gentiles (11:11-16)
- Warning Against Gentile Boasting (11:17-24)
- The Promise of Israel’s Salvation (11:25-32)
- Doxology (11:33-36)
- Israel’s Election (9:1-29)
- Christian Conduct (12:1-15:13)
- The Basis of Paul’s Ethical Appeal (12:1-2)
- The Exercise of Spiritual Gifts (12:3-8)
- Devotion to Love and Goodness (12:9-16)
- Non-retaliation Toward Enemies (12:17-21)
- Submission to Governing Authorities (13:1-7)
- Love Fulfills the Law (13:8-10)
- Living in the Light of the Day (13:11-14)
- Mutual Acceptance Between the Weak and the Strong (14:1-15:13)
- Accept Those Who Are Weak in Faith (14:1-12)
- Do Not Cause a Brother or Sister to Stumble (14:13-23)
- Help the Weak (15:1-6)
- Accept One Another (15:7-13)
- Paul’s Ministry and Future Plans (15:14-33)
- Paul’s Ministry in the East (15:14-21)
- Paul’s Plan to Visit Rome En Route to Spain (15:22-24)
- Paul’s Collection Visit to Jerusalem Prior to His Trip to Rome (15:25-29)
- A Prayer Request (15:30-33)
- The Letter Closing (16:1-27)
- Commendation of Phoebe (16:1-2)
- Greetings to Roman Christians (16:3-16)
- Warning, Exhortation, and Affirmation (16:17-20)
- Greetings from Paul’s Companions (16:21-23)
- Doxology (16:25-27)
Brown, Raymond E. An Introduction to the New Testament. New York: Doubleday, 1997.
Brown, Raymond E., Joseph A. Fitzmyer, and Roland E. Murphy, eds. The New Jerome Biblical Commentary. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice Hall, 1990.
Ehrman, Bart D. The New Testament: A Historical Introduction to the Early Christian Writings. Second Edition. New York: Oxford University Press, 2000.
Dunn, J. D. G. “Romans, Letter to the.” Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993.
Kruse, Colin G. Paul’s Letter to the Romans. Kindle Edition. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 2014.
Locatell, C. S. “Romans, Letter to the.” The Lexham Bible Dictionary. Bellingham, WA: Lexham Press, 2014.
Mays, James L., ed. The HarperCollins Bible Commentary. Revised Edition. San Francisco: HarperSanFrancisco, 2000.
Metzger, Bruce M., ed. A Textual Commentary on the Greek New Testament. Second Edition. Hendrickson Pub, 2005.
Moo, Douglas J. The Epistle to the Romans. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1996.
Myers Jr., Charles D. “Epistle to the Romans.” Anchor Bible Dictionary. New York: Doubleday, 1992.
Reasoner, M. “Rome and Roman Christianity.” Dictionary of Paul and His Letters. Downers Grove, IL: InterVarsity Press, 1993.
Schreiner, Thomas R. Romans. Kindle Edition. Baker Exegetical Commentary on the New Testament. Baker Publishing Group, 1998.
Witherington III, Ben, and Darlene Hyatt. Paul’s Letter to the Romans: A Socio-Rhetorical Commentary. Kindle Edition. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing, 2004.
- Mays 2000, 1041 ↩
- Schreiner 1998, loc. 465-466 ↩
- Metzger 2005, 471; Moo 1996, 6 ↩
- Metzger 2005, 473 ↩
- Moo 1996, 8 ↩
- Moo 1996, 8 ↩
- Moo 1996, 8 ↩
- Moo 1996, 8 ↩
- Schreiner 1998, loc. 614-615 ↩
- Myers Jr. 1992, 5.819 ↩
- Metzger 2005, 476 ↩
- Witherington III 2004, 4 ↩
- Myers Jr. 1992, 5.819-820 ↩
- Moo 1996, 14 ↩
- Myers Jr. 1992, 5.816 ↩
- Schreiner 1998, loc. 487-499 ↩
- Kruse 2014, 13 ↩
- Locatell 2014, “Place” ↩
- Witherington 2004, 16 ↩
- PL 17, col. 46 in Moo 1996, 4 ↩
- Mays 2000, 1039 ↩
- Kruse 2012, 2 ↩
- Witherington III 2004, 8 ↩
- Witherington III 2004, 8 ↩
- Witherington III 2004, 8-9 ↩
- Myers Jr. 1992, 5.826 ↩
- Moo 1996, 17 ↩