Commentary on Genesis 18-19

Last updated: July 22, 2009

English Translation (ESV)

18:1And the LORD appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat at the door of his tent in the heat of the day. 2He lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing in front of him. When he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth 3and said, “O Lord, if I have found favor in your sight, do not pass by your servant. 4Let a little water be brought, and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree, 5while I bring a morsel of bread, that you may refresh yourselves, and after that you may pass on—since you have come to your servant.” So they said, “Do as you have said.” 6And Abraham went quickly into the tent to Sarah and said, “Quick! Three seahs of fine flour! Knead it, and make cakes.” 7And Abraham ran to the herd and took a calf, tender and good, and gave it to a young man, who prepared it quickly. 8Then he took curds and milk and the calf that he had prepared, and set it before them. And he stood by them under the tree while they ate.

9They said to him, “Where is Sarah your wife?” And he said, “She is in the tent.” 10The LORD said, “I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sarah your wife shall have a son.” And Sarah was listening at the tent door behind him. 11Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years. The way of women had ceased to be with Sarah. 12So Sarah laughed to herself, saying, “After I am worn out, and my lord is old, shall I have pleasure?” 13The LORD said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Shall I indeed bear a child, now that I am old?’ 14Is anything too hard for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son.” 15But Sarah denied it, saying, “I did not laugh,” for she was afraid. He said, “No, but you did laugh.”

16Then the men set out from there, and they looked down toward Sodom. And Abraham went with them to set them on their way. 17The LORD said, “Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, 18seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him? 19For I have chosen him, that he may command his children and his household after him to keep the way of the LORD by doing righteousness and justice, so that the LORD may bring to Abraham what he has promised him.” 20Then the LORD said, “Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great and their sin is very grave, 21I will go down to see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry that has come to me. And if not, I will know.”

22So the men turned from there and went toward Sodom, but Abraham still stood before the LORD. 23Then Abraham drew near and said, “Will you indeed sweep away the righteous with the wicked? 24Suppose there are fifty righteous within the city. Will you then sweep away the place and not spare it for the fifty righteous who are in it? 25Far be it from you to do such a thing, to put the righteous to death with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Far be that from you! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?” 26And the LORD said, “If I find at Sodom fifty righteous in the city, I will spare the whole place for their sake.”

27Abraham answered and said, “Behold, I have undertaken to speak to the Lord, I who am but dust and ashes. 28Suppose five of the fifty righteous are lacking. Will you destroy the whole city for lack of five?” And he said, “I will not destroy it if I find forty-five there.” 29Again he spoke to him and said, “Suppose forty are found there.” He answered, “For the sake of forty I will not do it.” 30Then he said, “Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak. Suppose thirty are found there.” He answered, “I will not do it, if I find thirty there.” 31He said, “Behold, I have undertaken to speak to the Lord. Suppose twenty are found there.” He answered, “For the sake of twenty I will not destroy it.” 32Then he said, “Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak again but this once. Suppose ten are found there.” He answered, “For the sake of ten I will not destroy it.” 33And the LORD went his way, when he had finished speaking to Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place.

19:1The two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he rose to meet them and bowed himself with his face to the earth 2and said, “My lords, please turn aside to your servant’s house and spend the night and wash your feet. Then you may rise up early and go on your way.” They said, “No; we will spend the night in the town square.” 3But he pressed them strongly; so they turned aside to him and entered his house. And he made them a feast and baked unleavened bread, and they ate.

4But before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, both young and old, all the people to the last man, surrounded the house. 5And they called to Lot, “Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, that we may know them.” 6Lot went out to the men at the entrance, shut the door after him, 7and said, “I beg you, my brothers, do not act so wickedly. 8Behold, I have two daughters who have not known any man. Let me bring them out to you, and do to them as you please. Only do nothing to these men, for they have come under the shelter of my roof.” 9But they said, “Stand back!” And they said, “This fellow came to sojourn, and he has become the judge! Now we will deal worse with you than with them.” Then they pressed hard against the man Lot, and drew near to break the door down. 10But the men reached out their hands and brought Lot into the house with them and shut the door. 11And they struck with blindness the men who were at the entrance of the house, both small and great, so that they wore themselves out groping for the door.

12Then the men said to Lot, “Have you anyone else here? Sons-in-law, sons, daughters, or anyone you have in the city, bring them out of the place. 13For we are about to destroy this place, because the outcry against its people has become great before the LORD, and the LORD has sent us to destroy it.” 14So Lot went out and said to his sons-in-law, who were to marry his daughters, “Up! Get out of this place, for the LORD is about to destroy the city.” But he seemed to his sons-in-law to be jesting.

15As morning dawned, the angels urged Lot, saying, “Up! Take your wife and your two daughters who are here, lest you be swept away in the punishment of the city.” 16But he lingered. So the men seized him and his wife and his two daughters by the hand, the LORD being merciful to him, and they brought him out and set him outside the city. 17And as they brought them out, one said, “Escape for your life. Do not look back or stop anywhere in the valley. Escape to the hills, lest you be swept away.” 18And Lot said to them, “Oh, no, my lords. 19Behold, your servant has found favor in your sight, and you have shown me great kindness in saving my life. But I cannot escape to the hills, lest the disaster overtake me and I die. 20Behold, this city is near enough to flee to, and it is a little one. Let me escape there—is it not a little one?—and my life will be saved!” 21He said to him, “Behold, I grant you this favor also, that I will not overthrow the city of which you have spoken. 22Escape there quickly, for I can do nothing till you arrive there.” Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.

23The sun had risen on the earth when Lot came to Zoar. 24Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from the LORD out of heaven. 25And he overthrew those cities, and all the valley, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and what grew on the ground. 26But Lot’s wife, behind him, looked back, and she became a pillar of salt.

27And Abraham went early in the morning to the place where he had stood before the LORD. 28And he looked down toward Sodom and Gomorrah and toward all the land of the valley, and he looked and, behold, the smoke of the land went up like the smoke of a furnace.

29So it was that, when God destroyed the cities of the valley, God remembered Abraham and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow when he overthrew the cities in which Lot had lived.

30Now Lot went up out of Zoar and lived in the hills with his two daughters, for he was afraid to live in Zoar. So he lived in a cave with his two daughters. 31And the firstborn said to the younger, “Our father is old, and there is not a man on earth to come in to us after the manner of all the earth. 32Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve offspring from our father.” 33So they made their father drink wine that night. And the firstborn went in and lay with her father. He did not know when she lay down or when she arose.

34The next day, the firstborn said to the younger, “Behold, I lay last night with my father. Let us make him drink wine tonight also. Then you go in and lie with him, that we may preserve offspring from our father.” 35So they made their father drink wine that night also. And the younger arose and lay with him, and he did not know when she lay down or when she arose. 36Thus both the daughters of Lot became pregnant by their father. 37The firstborn bore a son and called his name Moab. He is the father of the Moabites to this day. 38The younger also bore a son and called his name Ben-ammi. He is the father of the Ammonites to this day.

Notes

18:1 And the LORD appeared to him by the oaks of Mamre, as he sat at the door of his tent in the heat of the day.

Abraham is not immediately aware that Yahweh has appeared to him (v 2). This notice makes the reader aware from the start of the real nature of the meeting. This meeting happens at the same location where Abraham had previously worshiped Yahweh (13:18). That Abraham “sat at the door of his tent in the heat of the day” implies that he had finished his morning work and was preparing for his siesta.1

18:2-3 He lifted up his eyes and looked, and behold, three men were standing in front of him. When he saw them, he ran from the tent door to meet them and bowed himself to the earth and said, “O Lord, if I have found favor in your sight, do not pass by your servant.

Abraham’s actions and words are more appropriate than he realizes. Bowing is appropriate to both humans (23:12; 37:9; 42:6) and God (24:26; Exodus 20:5). It is appropriate to address God as “Lord” (15:2, 8). The last use of “found favor” was when Noah found favor in the eyes of God (6:8). The use of the singular means Abraham was addressing the leader of the group and thus when he says “your servant” the reader knows he is unwittingly claiming to be God’s servant.2

18:4-5 Let a little water be brought, and wash your feet, and rest yourselves under the tree, while I bring a morsel of bread, that you may refresh yourselves, and after that you may pass on—since you have come to your servant.” So they said, “Do as you have said.”

Gordon Wenham’s translation has “For this is why you have come, for your servant’s benefit” in place of “since you have come to your servant.”3 Abraham’s remark is unwittingly prophetic for God has come for Abraham’s benefit.

18:6 And Abraham went quickly into the tent to Sarah and said, “Quick! Three seahs of fine flour! Knead it, and make cakes.”

The “morsel of bread” (v 5) turns into a feast. The Hebrew, like the English translation, underlines the hurry Abraham is in.4 A seah is about two gallons or eight liters and thus three seahs of flour would make a great quantity of bread (1 Samuel 25:18; 1 Kings 18:32).5 “Fine flour” was used in cereal offerings and the bread of the presence.

18:7 And Abraham ran to the herd and took a calf, tender and good, and gave it to a young man, who prepared it quickly.

A lamb or goat would have been more adequate for three visitors but killing a calf showed great generosity (cf. 27:9; Judges 6:19; 13:15; 2 Samuel 12:4; Luke 15:27-30). Top-quality animals were required when offering sacrifices.

18:8 Then he took curds and milk and the calf that he had prepared, and set it before them. And he stood by them under the tree while they ate.

Curds are the coagulated state of the fatty part of the milk, corresponding to the modern leben or yogurt. Milk was highly esteemed in the ancient Near East and was offered to the gods. It was regarded as a source of vitality and possessor of curative powers. Abraham personally serves the strangers this rich fare and stands close by, ready to attend to their needs.6

18:9 They said to him, “Where is Sarah your wife?” And he said, “She is in the tent.”

The fact that the visitors know Sarah’s name is the first hint to Abraham of their identity.

18:10 The LORD said, “I will surely return to you about this time next year, and Sarah your wife shall have a son.” And Sarah was listening at the tent door behind him.

Yahweh’s return is mentioned in 21:1. The last sentence means that Sarah was behind the divine messenger. The messenger could not see Sarah. “The promise of a son implies that the speaker is a divine messenger; the fact that he can discern Sarah’s reactions without seeing her proves his status and guarantees his message.”7

18:11 Now Abraham and Sarah were old, advanced in years. The way of women had ceased to be with Sarah.

The “way of women” refers to the menstrual cycle (31:35). Conception and birth were impossible barring divine intervention.

18:12 So Sarah laughed to herself, saying, “After I am worn out, and my lord is old, shall I have pleasure?”

These remarks of Sarah’s show us the basis of her doubts. She laughed not out of cocky arrogance but because a life of long disappointment had taught her not to clutch at straws. Hopelessness, not pride, underlay her unbelief. Her self-restraint in not openly expressing her doubts and the sadness behind them go far to explain the gentleness of the divine rebuke.8

18:13 The LORD said to Abraham, “Why did Sarah laugh and say, ‘Shall I indeed bear a child, now that I am old?’

The LORD continues to speak to Abraham, but really to Sarah. If Sarah was astonished at the promise of a child, the LORD professes astonishment that she should not have believed him. The phraseology of the Hebrew expresses the divine surprise. The way he phrases Sarah’s doubts is instructive. The narrator was direct – “past the menopause”; Sarah was pathetic and blamed her husband, “I am worn out and my husband is old,” but the LORD is kindly. He does not describe Sarah as “worn out” or her husband as too old; rather, he simply says that Sarah said, “Shall I even I really give birth as I am old?” But what is most significant is that he knows that Sarah had laughed and what she thought even though he had his back to her and she was inside the tent. This proves who he is and is the foundation for the next remark.9

18:14 Is anything too hard for the LORD? At the appointed time I will return to you, about this time next year, and Sarah shall have a son.”

God’s rhetorical question implies that he is omnipotent. The Hebrew phrase behind “at the appointed time” repeats the assurance from 17:21 and thereby reaffirms that promise.

18:16 Then the men set out from there, and they looked down toward Sodom. And Abraham went with them to set them on their way.

Abraham accompanied the visitors as an act of respect but apparently did not know their plans for Sodom. Their look toward Sodom alerts the reader to what is about to happen (cf. 13:10). Tradition holds that the vantage point in question is the village of Beni Na’im, three miles east of Hebron.10

18:17-18 The LORD said, “Shall I hide from Abraham what I am about to do, seeing that Abraham shall surely become a great and mighty nation, and all the nations of the earth shall be blessed in him?

Verse 18 recalls 12:2-3. This is the only time promises to a patriarch are in a soliloquy. “The significance of this form is that it reinforces that the earlier divine disclosure to Abraham is authentic, unadulterated, and truthful. The soliloquy underscores the word of God as infallible, for will God, when speaking to himself, attempt to deceive himself? What God says is what he is thinking.”11

18:20-21 Then the LORD said, “Because the outcry against Sodom and Gomorrah is great and their sin is very grave, I will go down to see whether they have done altogether according to the outcry that has come to me. And if not, I will know.”

After making known to Abraham his diagnosis of the cities’ ills, Yahweh declares to Abraham his intention to go down and inspect the cities. Thus Yahweh intends to set out on a mission of verification. Will what God sees confirm what he has already heard? Again, we have in this section a bold anthropomorphism – Yahweh will reconnoiter Sodom as investigator – that balances the anthropomorphism of vv. 1-15, viz., Yahweh stops off for rest and food at Abraham’s home as guest. The modern reader may think it strange that Yahweh knows what he is about to do with Sodom (v. 17), he knows about its sin (v. 20), yet he announces his intention to make a judicial inquiry into the state of affairs in the city (v. 21). Is Yahweh fully informed about Sodom’s turpitude or is he not? Had vv. 20-21 been a further soliloquy by Yahweh, then we would have no recourse but to suggest that vv. 20-21 are intrusive in the narrative. Yet this is not a soliloquy but a speech made to Abraham. Later in the narrative Abraham will raise the issue of whether God is always and consistently just. Almost in anticipation of that interrogation, seemingly almost on the defensive, Yahweh informs Abraham not only of Sodom’s state but of his intention to buttress that observation with a fact-finding mission. Thus, already Yahweh dilutes some of Abraham’s concerns by letting the patriarch in on the thoroughness of his analysis of the situation at the two cities.12

18:22 So the men turned from there and went toward Sodom, but Abraham still stood before the LORD.

This verse clarifies who the three men were. One of them was God and the other two were angels (19:1). That Abraham “stood before the LORD” shows that he is taking on the intercessory ministry of the prophet (Jeremiah 15:1, 19).

18:25 Far be it from you to do such a thing, to put the righteous to death with the wicked, so that the righteous fare as the wicked! Far be that from you! Shall not the Judge of all the earth do what is just?”

Abraham assumes that God is righteous and just. “If the Lord’s righteousness were truly uncertain in Abraham’s mind, then the discussion that follows has no ground. It is because the Lord acts justly that Abraham is perplexed at the threat of the innocent’s annihilation with the guilty; justice in the patriarch’s view required discrimination between the righteous and the wicked (cf. Mal 3:18).”13

18:32 Then he said, “Oh let not the Lord be angry, and I will speak again but this once. Suppose ten are found there.” He answered, “For the sake of ten I will not destroy it.”

No reason is given for why Abraham stops at ten.

18:33 And the LORD went his way, when he had finished speaking to Abraham, and Abraham returned to his place.

It is not said that Yahweh went to Sodom.

19:1-2 The two angels came to Sodom in the evening, and Lot was sitting in the gate of Sodom. When Lot saw them, he rose to meet them and bowed himself with his face to the earth and said, “My lords, please turn aside to your servant’s house and spend the night and wash your feet. Then you may rise up early and go on your way.” They said, “No; we will spend the night in the town square.”

The phrase “in the evening” suggests that the angels spent most of the day with Abraham. Presumably Lot did not immediately know the two men were angels. Ancient Near Eastern customs dictated that one should offer a stranger a bed for the night but also that one should accept such an offer.14 Lot suggests that the visitors “rise up early” and not stay in the city long.

19:4 But before they lay down, the men of the city, the men of Sodom, both young and old, all the people to the last man, surrounded the house.

Note the emphatic insistence that the whole population was intent on committing evil.15 Once Lot was out of the city there was no chance of the righteous being destroyed with the wicked.

19:5 And they called to Lot, “Where are the men who came to you tonight? Bring them out to us, that we may know them.”

In this verse, “to know” refers to sexual knowledge (vv 6-8).

Victor P. Hamilton sees four problems with the view that this passage is condemning homosexual rape and not homosexuality in and of itself.16 I find his argument unconvincing and see nothing in this passage that condemns homosexual relations per se. Note that neither Hamilton nor myself are stating the only sin of the Sodomites was sexual in nature. The Bible makes no attempt to list their each and every sin.

Hamilton begins by noting that the Hebrew verb yada (“to know”) never has the sense of “abuse” or “violate.” This may be the case but we have to look at the passage as a whole and not just one word. The violence in verse 9 has more in common with rape than consensual sex.

Hamilton’s second argument is that the Hebrew Bible uses unmistakable language to relate rape incidents (Genesis 34:2; Deuteronomy 22:25-27; 2 Samuel 13:14). The problem is that this passage is not relating a rape incident, it is relating an attempted rape incident.

Hamilton’s third argument is that those who believe this passage only condemns homosexual rape must translate “to know” differently in verses 5 (“that we may abuse/violate them”) and 8 (“I have two daughters who have not known any man”). I agree with him that verse 8 is saying Lot’s daughters are virgins and not merely women who have not been raped. However, I see no reason why we cannot translate yada as “to know” in both verses and realize the context implies the Sodomites wanted to rape the visitors.

Finally, Hamilton objects to the idea of Lot offering his daughters up for rape (v 8) and notes that this passage, unlike the similar Judges 19:24, does not have the host giving the city dwellers permission to sexually mistreat his daughters. Yet Hamilton admits that it is puzzling that Lot offers his daughters up for the sexual pleasure of the Sodomites. He also ignores Lot saying “do to them [my daughters] as you please” (v 8) and the fact that, unless the daughters wanted to have sex with the men, Lot is offering up his daughters for rape! On either interpretation Lot’s behavior is shocking and does not help us decide this issue.

19:6-7 Lot went out to the men at the entrance, shut the door after him, and said, “I beg you, my brothers, do not act so wickedly.

Protecting one’s guests was a sacred duty.17 Lot, by shutting the door behind him, cut off his own escape in order to protect those inside.

19:8 Behold, I have two daughters who have not known any man. Let me bring them out to you, and do to them as you please. Only do nothing to these men, for they have come under the shelter of my roof.”

That Lot sanctions the rape of his daughters indicates a moral compass gone awry; he places hospitality above the protection of his own children. It is difficult to conceive of such a custom that would put a guest’s well-being over family. Such treatment by a father was despicable in the eyes of Israel; forcing a daughter into prostitution is specifically forbidden in Mosaic law (Lev 19:29). Yet offense against aliens was also grievous in the Mosaic tradition (e.g., Exod 22:21[20]; Lev 19:33-34; Deut 10:19). Lot is caught in a web of the most vile circumstances, and he opts for a way out that can never salvage any good. He surely offends his own sense of right behavior while attempting to save face with the strangers. For a moment it is Sodom that has taken up residence in Lot’s soul.18

19:9 But they said, “Stand back!” And they said, “This fellow came to sojourn, and he has become the judge! Now we will deal worse with you than with them.” Then they pressed hard against the man Lot, and drew near to break the door down.

Lot is reminded of his isolation and his alien status. Being a ger, he is without legal rights and protection and is entirely dependent on the goodwill of the local community . . . . There is a touch of irony in this, for Lot had, by stages, integrated himself into Sodom’s society. First he merely “pitched his tents near Sodom” (13:12). Then “he had settled in Sodom” (14:12). It was solely on his account that the city had earlier been saved by Abraham (14:14). Now he lives in a house there and “sits in the gate” where the city elders gather. His daughters are about to intermarry with local men. Yet, despite his best efforts, he cannot fully assimilate into Sodom’s society, and when it comes to the test, he finds he is an outsider after all.19

19:11 And they struck with blindness the men who were at the entrance of the house, both small and great, so that they wore themselves out groping for the door.

The visitor’s identity is now revealed. “The people of Sodom did not suffer the usual kind of sightlessness (ivvaron) but a sudden, immobilizing, blazing flash of light.”20 That the men of Sodom “wore themselves out groping for the door” means that they did not immediately go home. This emphasizes their wickedness. We would expect even blind men to have been able to find the door they were just about to break down. The fact that they could not find the door implies some further kind of divine protection.

19:17 And as they brought them out, one said, “Escape for your life. Do not look back or stop anywhere in the valley. Escape to the hills, lest you be swept away.”

The Hebrew stem (mlt) in “escape” is a word play on the name Lot.21

19:19 Behold, your servant has found favor in your sight, and you have shown me great kindness in saving my life. But I cannot escape to the hills, lest the disaster overtake me and I die.

Lot does not obey without question. He doubts God’s ability to save him.

19:22 Escape there quickly, for I can do nothing till you arrive there.” Therefore the name of the city was called Zoar.

Zoar comes from the root for “to be small.”22

19:24 Then the LORD rained on Sodom and Gomorrah sulfur and fire from the LORD out of heaven.

Sulfur and fire” may be a hendiadys meaning burning sulfur. The picture is of blocks of burning sulfur being hurled down on the cities.23

19:26 But Lot’s wife, behind him, looked back, and she became a pillar of salt.

Lot’s wife violated the instruction of verse 17 and her action may imply that she still had affection for Sodom or even went back to Sodom (did she not arrive in Zoar with Lot in verse 23?). We are probably to believe that was overcome by the sulfur cloud and that this is how she was turned into a pillar of salt, probably to be understood as a coating of salt24.

19:28 And he looked down toward Sodom and Gomorrah and toward all the land of the valley, and he looked and, behold, the smoke of the land went up like the smoke of a furnace.

At this time, Abraham did not know what had happened to Lot.

19:29 So it was that, when God destroyed the cities of the valley, God remembered Abraham and sent Lot out of the midst of the overthrow when he overthrew the cities in which Lot had lived.

Abraham’s intercession had been worthwhile. “God remembered Abraham” echoes “God remembered Noah” (8:1).

19:30 Now Lot went up out of Zoar and lived in the hills with his two daughters, for he was afraid to live in Zoar. So he lived in a cave with his two daughters.

Perhaps Lot sees Zoar is just as bad as Sodom, or perhaps he is fearful that the angels will change their mind and destroy the city anyway (without forewarning this time).”25

19:31 And the firstborn said to the younger, “Our father is old, and there is not a man on earth to come in to us after the manner of all the earth.

Presumably there were men to marry in Zoar. Perhaps the firstborn is desperate to have children and so exaggerates the destruction.

19:32 Come, let us make our father drink wine, and we will lie with him, that we may preserve offspring from our father.”

Having children, not getting married, is the firstborn’s primary concern.

19:33 So they made their father drink wine that night. And the firstborn went in and lay with her father. He did not know when she lay down or when she arose.

Incest between father and daughter was viewed as wrong throughout the ancient Near East.26 The daughters had to get Lot incredibly drunk (“he did not know when she lay down or when she arose”) because he would never have agreed to have intercourse with them otherwise.

19:36 Thus both the daughters of Lot became pregnant by their father.

The text is silent on Lot’s reaction to the pregnancy of his daughters.

19:37 The firstborn bore a son and called his name Moab. He is the father of the Moabites to this day.

Moab means “from the father.”27

19:38 The younger also bore a son and called his name Ben-ammi. He is the father of the Ammonites to this day.

Ben-ammi means “son of my kin.”28 This is the last we hear of Lot in Genesis.

Bibliography

Hamilton, Victor P. The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50. The New International Commentary on the Old Testament 1B. Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company, 1995.

Mathews, Kenneth A. Genesis 11:27-50:26. The New American Commentary Volume 1B. Nashville, TN: Broadman & Holman Publishers, 2005.

Sarna, Nahum M. JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis. 1st ed. Jewish Publication Society of America, 1989.

Walton, John H. Genesis. The NIV Application Commentary. Grand Rapids, MI: Zondervan, 2001.

Wenham, Gordon J. Genesis 16-50. Word Biblical Commentary 2. Thomas Nelson, 1994.

1Wenham, Genesis 16-50, 45.

2Ibid., 46.

3Ibid.

4Ibid., 46-47.

5Ibid., 47.

6Sarna, JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis, 129.

7Wenham, Genesis 16-50, 48.

8Ibid.

9Ibid., 48-49.

10Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50, 17.

11Ibid.

12Ibid., 19-20.

13Mathews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, 228.

14Wenham, Genesis 16-50, 54.

15Mathews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, 235.

16Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50, 34-35.

17Wenham, Genesis 16-50, 55.

18Mathews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, 237.

19Sarna, JPS Torah Commentary: Genesis, 136.

20Ibid.

21Ibid., 137.

22Wenham, Genesis 16-50, 58.

23Hamilton, The Book of Genesis, Chapters 18-50, 47.

24Mathews, Genesis 11:27-50:26, 242.

25Walton, Genesis, 480.

26Wenham, Genesis 16-50, 61.

27Ibid., 62.

28Ibid.

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